kubeadm部署k8s集群

kubeadm是官方社区推出的一个用于快速部署kubernetes集群的工具。

这个工具能通过两条指令完成一个kubernetes集群的部署:

# 创建一个 Master 节点
kubeadm init

# 将一个 Node 节点加入到当前集群中
kubeadm join 

1. 安装要求

在开始之前,部署Kubernetes集群机器需要满足以下几个条件:

  • 一台或多台机器,操作系统 CentOS7.x-86_x64
  • 硬件配置:2GB或更多RAM,2个CPU或更多CPU,硬盘30GB或更多
  • 集群中所有机器之间网络互通
  • 可以访问外网,需要拉取镜像
  • 禁止swap分区

2. 学习目标

  1. 在所有节点上安装Docker和kubeadm
  2. 部署Kubernetes Master
  3. 部署容器网络插件
  4. 部署 Kubernetes Node,将节点加入Kubernetes集群中
  5. 部署Dashboard Web页面,可视化查看Kubernetes资源

3. 准备环境

关闭防火墙:
# systemctl stop firewalld
# systemctl disable firewalld

关闭selinux:
# sed -i 's/enforcing/disabled/' /etc/selinux/config 
# setenforce 0

关闭swap:
# swapoff -a  # 临时
# vim /etc/fstab  # 永久

添加主机名与IP对应关系):
# cat /etc/hosts
192.168.31.61 k8s-master
192.168.31.62 k8s-node1
192.168.31.63 k8s-node2

设置主机名:
# hostnamectl set-hostname  k8s-master

将桥接的IPv4流量传递到iptables的链:
# cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
# sysctl --system

4. 所有节点安装Docker/kubeadm/kubelet

Kubernetes默认CRI(容器运行时)为Docker,因此先安装Docker。

4.1 安装Docker

每台机器上安装Docker,建议使用18.09版本。

# wget https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo -O /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo
# yum list docker-ce --showduplicates | sort -r
# yum -y install docker-ce-18.09.9-3.el7

设置cgroup驱动,推荐systemd:

# cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json <
镜像下载加速:


curl -sSL https://get.daocloud.io/daotools/set_mirror.sh | sh -s http://f1361db2.m.daocloud.io

4.2 添加阿里云YUM软件源

# cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/kubernetes.repo << EOF
[kubernetes]
name=Kubernetes
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/repos/kubernetes-el7-x86_64
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
repo_gpgcheck=0
gpgkey=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/yum-key.gpg https://mirrors.aliyun.com/kubernetes/yum/doc/rpm-package-key.gpg
EOF

4.3 安装kubeadm,kubelet和kubectl

由于版本更新频繁,这里指定版本号部署:


# yum install -y kubelet-1.16.0 kubeadm-1.16.0 kubectl-1.16.0
# systemctl enable kubelet


5. 部署Kubernetes Master

在192.168.31.61(Master)执行。


# kubeadm init \
--apiserver-advertise-address=192.168.31.61 \
--image-repository registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers \
--kubernetes-version v1.16.0 \
--service-cidr=10.1.0.0/16 \
--pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16

由于默认拉取镜像地址k8s.gcr.io国内无法访问,这里指定阿里云镜像仓库地址。


使用kubectl工具:


mkdir -p $HOME/.kube
sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config
sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
# kubectl get nodes

6. 安装Pod网络插件(CNI)

# cat >  kube-flannel.yml << eof
---
apiVersion: policy/v1beta1
kind: PodSecurityPolicy
metadata:
  name: psp.flannel.unprivileged
  annotations:seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames: docker/defaultseccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName: docker/defaultapparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/allowedProfileNames: runtime/defaultapparmor.security.beta.kubernetes.io/defaultProfileName: runtime/default
spec:
  privileged: false
  volumes:
    - configMap
    - secret
    - emptyDir
    - hostPath
  allowedHostPaths:
    - pathPrefix: "/etc/cni/net.d"
    - pathPrefix: "/etc/kube-flannel"
    - pathPrefix: "/run/flannel"
  readOnlyRootFilesystem: false# Users and groups
  runAsUser:
    rule: RunAsAny
  supplementalGroups:
    rule: RunAsAny
  fsGroup:
    rule: RunAsAny# Privilege Escalation
  allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
  defaultAllowPrivilegeEscalation: false# Capabilities
  allowedCapabilities: ['NET_ADMIN']
  defaultAddCapabilities: []
  requiredDropCapabilities: []# Host namespaces
  hostPID: false
  hostIPC: false
  hostNetwork: true
  hostPorts:
  - min: 0
    max: 65535# SELinux
  seLinux:# SELinux is unsed in CaaSP
    rule: 'RunAsAny'
---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: flannel
rules:
  - apiGroups: ['extensions']
    resources: ['podsecuritypolicies']
    verbs: ['use']
    resourceNames: ['psp.flannel.unprivileged']
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - pods
    verbs:
      - get
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes
    verbs:
      - list
      - watch
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes/status
    verbs:
      - patch
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: flannel
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: flannel
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: flannel
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: flannel
  namespace: kube-system
---
kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: kube-flannel-cfg
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    tier: node
    app: flannel
data:cni-conf.json: |
    {
      "cniVersion": "0.2.0",
      "name": "cbr0",
      "plugins": [
        {
          "type": "flannel",
          "delegate": {
            "hairpinMode": true,
            "isDefaultGateway": true
          }
        },
        {
          "type": "portmap",
          "capabilities": {
            "portMappings": true
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  net-conf.json: |
    {
      "Network": "10.244.0.0/16",
      "Backend": {
        "Type": "vxlan"
      }
    }
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  name: kube-flannel-ds-amd64
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    tier: node
    app: flannel
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: flannel
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        tier: node
        app: flannel
    spec:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
              - matchExpressions:
                  - key: beta.kubernetes.io/os
                    operator: In
                    values:
                      - linux
                  - key: beta.kubernetes.io/arch
                    operator: In
                    values:
                      - amd64
      hostNetwork: true
      tolerations:
      - operator: Exists
        effect: NoSchedule
      serviceAccountName: flannel
      initContainers:
      - name: install-cni
        image: lizhenliang/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64 
        command:
        - cp
        args:
        - -f
        - /etc/kube-flannel/cni-conf.json
        - /etc/cni/net.d/10-flannel.conflist
        volumeMounts:
        - name: cni
          mountPath: /etc/cni/net.d
        - name: flannel-cfg
          mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
      containers:
      - name: kube-flannel
        image: lizhenliang/flannel:v0.11.0-amd64 
        command:
        - /opt/bin/flanneld
        args:
        - --ip-masq
        - --kube-subnet-mgr
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: "100m"
            memory: "50Mi"
          limits:
            cpu: "100m"
            memory: "50Mi"
        securityContext:
          privileged: false
          capabilities:
             add: ["NET_ADMIN"]
        env:
        - name: POD_NAME
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
        - name: POD_NAMESPACE
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace
        volumeMounts:
        - name: run
          mountPath: /run/flannel
        - name: flannel-cfg
          mountPath: /etc/kube-flannel/
      volumes:
        - name: run
          hostPath:
            path: /run/flannel
        - name: cni
          hostPath:
            path: /etc/cni/net.d
        - name: flannel-cfg
          configMap:
            name: kube-flannel-cfg

eof
#
# kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml
# kubectl get pods -n kube-system

确保能够访问到quay.io这个registery。




7. 加入Kubernetes Node

在192.168.31.62/63(Node)执行。


向集群添加新节点,执行在kubeadm init输出的kubeadm join命令:


# kubeadm join 192.168.31.61:6443 --token esce21.q6hetwm8si29qxwn \
    --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:00603a05805807501d7181c3d60b478788408cfe6cedefedb1f97569708be9c5

如果忘记了上面的 join 命令可以使用命令kubeadm token create --print-join-command重新获取。


默认token有效期为24小时,当过期之后,该token就不可用了。这时就需要重新创建token,操作如下:


# kubeadm token create
# kubeadm token list
# openssl x509 -pubkey -in /etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt | openssl rsa -pubin -outform der 2>/dev/null | openssl dgst -sha256 -hex | sed 's/^.* //'
63bca849e0e01691ae14eab449570284f0c3ddeea590f8da988c07fe2729e924

# kubeadm join 192.168.31.61:6443 --discovery-token nuja6n.o3jrhsffiqs9swnu --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash 63bca849e0e01691ae14eab449570284f0c3ddeea590f8da988c07fe2729e924

https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/setup-tools/kubeadm/kubeadm-join/


8. 测试kubernetes集群

在Kubernetes集群中创建一个pod,验证是否正常运行:


# kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx
# kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=80 --type=NodePort
# kubectl get pod,svc

访问地址:http://NodeIP:Port


9. 部署 Dashboard

# cat > kubernetes-dashboard.yaml << eof
# Copyright 2017 The Kubernetes Authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30001
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-csrf
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque
data:
  csrf: ""

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-settings
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:# Allow Dashboard to get, update and delete Dashboard exclusive secrets.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["secrets"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder", "kubernetes-dashboard-certs", "kubernetes-dashboard-csrf"]
    verbs: ["get", "update", "delete"]# Allow Dashboard to get and update 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["configmaps"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-settings"]
    verbs: ["get", "update"]# Allow Dashboard to get metrics.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["proxy"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services/proxy"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "http:heapster:", "https:heapster:", "dashboard-metrics-scraper", "http:dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["get"]

---

kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:# Allow Metrics Scraper to get metrics from the Metrics server
  - apiGroups: ["metrics.k8s.io"]
    resources: ["pods", "nodes"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard
          image: kubernetesui/dashboard:v2.0.0-beta4
          imagePullPolicy: Always
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8443
              protocol: TCP
          args:
            - --auto-generate-certificates
            - --namespace=kubernetes-dashboard# Uncomment the following line to manually specify Kubernetes API server Host# If not specified, Dashboard will attempt to auto discover the API server and connect# to it. Uncomment only if the default does not work.# - --apiserver-host=http://my-address:port
          volumeMounts:
            - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
              mountPath: /certs# Create on-disk volume to store exec logs
            - mountPath: /tmp
              name: tmp-volume
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTPS
              path: /
              port: 8443
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
      volumes:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          secret:
            secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard# Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule

---

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 8000
      targetPort: 8000
  selector:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper

---

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
          image: kubernetesui/metrics-scraper:v1.0.1
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8000
              protocol: TCP
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTP
              path: /
              port: 8000
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          volumeMounts:
          - mountPath: /tmp
            name: tmp-volume
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard# Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule
      volumes:
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}

eof
# kubectl apply -f kubernetes-dashboard.yaml
# kubectl get pods -n kubernetes-dashboard

访问地址:http://NodeIP:30001


创建service account并绑定默认cluster-admin管理员集群角色:


# kubectl create serviceaccount dashboard-admin -n kubernetes-dashboard
# kubectl create clusterrolebinding dashboard-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kubernetes-dashboard:dashboard-admin
# kubectl describe secrets -n kubernetes-dashboard $(kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard get secret | awk '/dashboard-admin/{print $1}')

使用输出的token登录Dashboard。


k8s 命令自动补全


yum install -y bash-completion
source /usr/share/bash-completion/bash_completion
source <(kubectl completion bash)
echo "source <(kubectl completion bash)" >> ~/.bashrc

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