创建 OpenStack云主机 [六]

创建m1.nano规格的主机(相等于定义虚拟机的硬件配置)生成一个密钥对(openstack的原理是不使用密码连接,而是使用密钥对进行连接)

创建 OpenStack云主机 [六]

openstack

时间:2016年11月28日

创建虚拟网络

创建m1.nano规格的主机(相等于定义虚拟机的硬件配置)生成一个密钥对(openstack的原理是不使用密码连接,而是使用密钥对进行连接)

增加安全组规则(用iptables做的安全组)

启动一个实例(使用命令启动,启动虚拟机有三种方式:1.命令CLI 2.api 3.Dashboard)其实Dashboard也是通过api进行连接块设备存储编排共享文件系统

虚拟网络分为提供者网络私有网络,提供者网络就是跟主机在同一个网络里,私有网络相当于单独创建一个路由器,跟主机不在一个网络

提供者网络架构

image_1b2kp30u1po01btg1efln08d879.png-107.7kB

1、创建虚拟网络

提示:虚拟网络必须使用admin权限进行创建

[root@linux-node1 ~]# source admin-openstack.sh
[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron net-create --shared --provider:physical_network public --provider:network_type flat public-net
Created a new network:
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                     | Value                                |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up            | True                                 |
| availability_zone_hints   |                                      |
| availability_zones        |                                      |
| created_at                | 2016-11-22T01:52:36                  |
| description               |                                      |
| id                        | b9f2214e-14a6-4988-b199-ad72eff0d6b9 |
| ipv4_address_scope        |                                      |
| ipv6_address_scope        |                                      |
| mtu                       | 1500                                 |
| name                      | public-net                           |
| port_security_enabled     | True                                 |
| provider:network_type     | flat                                 |
| provider:physical_network | public                               |
| provider:segmentation_id  |                                      |
| router:external           | False                                |
| shared                    | True                                 |
| status                    | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets                   |                                      |
| tags                      |                                      |
| tenant_id                 | 026a58f98402437fa95ef4a21fbd4d1a     |
| updated_at                | 2016-11-22T01:52:36                  |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

#neutron net-create --shared(共享网络)  --provider:physical_network(物理网络) public(物理网络的名称) --provider:network_type(创建的网络类型为flat)  flat public-net(自定义一个名称)

检查是否创建成功

[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron net-list
+--------------------------------------+------------+---------+
| id                                   | name       | subnets |
+--------------------------------------+------------+---------+
| b9f2214e-14a6-4988-b199-ad72eff0d6b9 | public-net |         |
+--------------------------------------+------------+---------+

现在我们还需要创建子网

[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron subnet-create --name public-subnet --allocation-pool start=192.168.56.100,end=192.168.56.200 --dns-nameserver 223.5.5.5 --gateway 192.168.56.2 public-net 192.168.56.0/24
Created a new subnet:
+-------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| Field             | Value                                                |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| allocation_pools  | {"start": "192.168.56.100", "end": "192.168.56.200"} |
| cidr              | 192.168.56.0/24                                      |
| created_at        | 2016-11-22T02:05:06                                  |
| description       |                                                      |
| dns_nameservers   | 223.5.5.5                                            |
| enable_dhcp       | True                                                 |
| gateway_ip        | 192.168.56.2                                         |
| host_routes       |                                                      |
| id                | 696eb806-f548-46c2-a653-d05724446daf                 |
| ip_version        | 4                                                    |
| ipv6_address_mode |                                                      |
| ipv6_ra_mode      |                                                      |
| name              | public-subnet                                        |
| network_id        | b9f2214e-14a6-4988-b199-ad72eff0d6b9                 |
| subnetpool_id     |                                                      |
| tenant_id         | 026a58f98402437fa95ef4a21fbd4d1a                     |
| updated_at        | 2016-11-22T02:05:06                                  |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------------------+



neutron subnet-create  子网创建
--name (名称)
--allocation—pool 分配地址池
start=开始IP地址
end=结束IP地址
dns-nameserver DNS地址
--gateway  网关
provider  提供者的网络(要跟创建网络的名称对应起来)

检查是否关联成功

[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron net-list
+--------------------------------------+------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| id                                   | name       | subnets                                              |
+--------------------------------------+------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| b9f2214e-14a6-4988-b199-ad72eff0d6b9 | public-net | 696eb806-f548-46c2-a653-d05724446daf 192.168.56.0/24 |
+--------------------------------------+------------+------------------------------------------------------+

查看子网

[root@linux-node1 ~]# neutron subnet-list
+--------------------------------------+---------------+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| id                                   | name          | cidr            | allocation_pools                                     |
+--------------------------------------+---------------+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------+
| 696eb806-f548-46c2-a653-d05724446daf | public-subnet | 192.168.56.0/24 | {"start": "192.168.56.100", "end": "192.168.56.200"} |
+--------------------------------------+---------------+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------+

2.创建m1.nano规格的主机

默认的最小规格的主机需要512 MB内存。对于环境中计算节点内存不足4 GB的,我们推荐创建只需要64 MB的m1.nano规格的主机。若单纯为了测试的目的,请使用m1.nano规格的主机来加载CirrOS镜像

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack flavor create --id 0 --vcpus 1 --ram 64 --disk 1 m1.nano
+----------------------------+---------+
| Field                      | Value   |
+----------------------------+---------+
| OS-FLV-DISABLED:disabled   | False   |
| OS-FLV-EXT-DATA:ephemeral  | 0       |
| disk                       | 1       |
| id                         | 0       |
| name                       | m1.nano |
| os-flavor-access:is_public | True    |
| ram                        | 64      |
| rxtx_factor                | 1.0     |
| swap                       |         |
| vcpus                      | 1       |
+----------------------------+---------+

openstack flavor create 创建主机
--id 主机ID
--vcpus   cpu
--ram 64兆(如果想加G,直接写64G即可)
--disk  磁盘(单位是G)

查看

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack flavor list
+----+-----------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| ID | Name      |   RAM | Disk | Ephemeral | VCPUs | Is Public |
+----+-----------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| 0  | m1.nano   |    64 |    1 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| 1  | m1.tiny   |   512 |    1 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| 2  | m1.small  |  2048 |   20 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| 3  | m1.medium |  4096 |   40 |         0 |     2 | True      |
| 4  | m1.large  |  8192 |   80 |         0 |     4 | True      |
| 5  | m1.xlarge | 16384 |  160 |         0 |     8 | True      |
+----+-----------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+

提示:1-5是默认的,0是我们创建的

生成一个键值对

大部分云镜像支持公共密钥认证而不是传统的密码认证。在启动实例前,你必须添加一个公共密钥到计算服务。

提示:我们使用demo用户进行操作

生成密钥

[root@linux-node1 ~]# source demo-openstack.sh 
[root@linux-node1 ~]# ssh-keygen -q -N ""
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 

在openstack上创建密钥对

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack keypair create --public-key ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub mykey
+-------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                                           |
+-------------+-------------------------------------------------+
| fingerprint | 9e:92:7a:89:b8:cc:86:fa:5d:2d:e9:5f:35:cd:43:01 |
| name        | mykey                                           |
| user_id     | a78ec26501374df4a574bd3f8153d67f                |
+-------------+-------------------------------------------------+

验证规则

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack keypair list
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
| Name  | Fingerprint                                     |
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+
| mykey | 9e:92:7a:89:b8:cc:86:fa:5d:2d:e9:5f:35:cd:43:01 |
+-------+-------------------------------------------------+

增加安全组

默认情况下,default安全组适用于所有实例并且包括拒绝访问实例的防火墙规则,对这样的Linux镜像,我们推荐至少允许ICMP(ping)和安全shell(SSH)规则

添加规则到default安全组

允许ICMP(ping)

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack security group rule create --proto icmp default
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                 | Value                                |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| id                    | 2a2af0f1-e3ab-426d-9716-10615bec3e75 |
| ip_protocol           | icmp                                 |
| ip_range              | 0.0.0.0/0                            |
| parent_group_id       | 58ed4e26-8cc1-4bdb-b9d1-c8606637e8b4 |
| port_range            |                                      |
| remote_security_group |                                      |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+

允许安全 shell (SSH) 的访问:

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack security group rule create --proto tcp --dst-port 22 default
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                 | Value                                |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+
| id                    | 94aa695c-58dc-4033-8c26-58f7f5482051 |
| ip_protocol           | tcp                                  |
| ip_range              | 0.0.0.0/0                            |
| parent_group_id       | 58ed4e26-8cc1-4bdb-b9d1-c8606637e8b4 |
| port_range            | 22:22                                |
| remote_security_group |                                      |
+-----------------------+--------------------------------------+

启动一个实例

在公有网络上创建实例确定实例选项

启动一台实例,您必须至少指定一个类型、镜像名称、网络、安全组、密钥和实例名称

我们还是使用demo用户进行设置

列出可用类型

[root@linux-node1 ~]# source demo-openstack.sh 
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack flavor list
+----+-----------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| ID | Name      |   RAM | Disk | Ephemeral | VCPUs | Is Public |
+----+-----------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| 0  | m1.nano   |    64 |    1 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| 1  | m1.tiny   |   512 |    1 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| 2  | m1.small  |  2048 |   20 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| 3  | m1.medium |  4096 |   40 |         0 |     2 | True      |
| 4  | m1.large  |  8192 |   80 |         0 |     4 | True      |
| 5  | m1.xlarge | 16384 |  160 |         0 |     8 | True      |
+----+-----------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+

因为我们在上面已经创建的,名字是m1.nano

列出可用的镜像

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack image list
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name   | Status |
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| fc67361d-ad30-40b2-9d96-941e50fc17f5 | cirros | active |
+--------------------------------------+--------+--------+

列出可用的网络

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack network list
+--------------------------------------+------------+--------------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name       | Subnets                              |
+--------------------------------------+------------+--------------------------------------+
| b9f2214e-14a6-4988-b199-ad72eff0d6b9 | public-net | 696eb806-f548-46c2-a653-d05724446daf |
+--------------------------------------+------------+--------------------------------------+

创建网络的时候使用的不是名称,而是ID

列出可用的安全组

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack security group list
+--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+----------------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name    | Description            | Project                          |
+--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+----------------------------------+
| 58ed4e26-8cc1-4bdb-b9d1-c8606637e8b4 | default | Default security group | ff5398ee1b2e4d00bafd57f82dc150e6 |
+--------------------------------------+---------+------------------------+----------------------------------+

创建实例

启动实例:

使用provider公有网络的ID替换PUBLIC_NET_ID。

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server create --flavor m1.nano --image cirros \
   --nic net-id=b9f2214e-14a6-4988-b199-ad72eff0d6b9 --security-group default \
   --key-name mykey provider-instance
+--------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| Field                                | Value                                                    |
+--------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig                    | MANUAL                                                   |
| OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone          | nova                                                     |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state               | 0                                                        |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state                | block_device_mapping                                     |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state                  | building                                                 |
| OS-SRV-USG:launched_at               | None                                                     |
| OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at             | None                                                     |
| accessIPv4                           |                                                          |
| accessIPv6                           |                                                          |
| addresses                            |                                                          |
| adminPass                            | e6aHhdr43Hjz                                             |
| config_drive                         |                                                          |
| created                              | 2016-11-22T03:48:01Z                                     |
| flavor                               | m1.nano (0)                                              |
| hostId                               | 6248511bd1ebfa25a7a99fe7c357194cc5fe54249b0228cc94fd51fd |
| id                                   | 55877c1a-7a08-4ddd-95a6-3c5376ba5c55                     |
| image                                | cirros (fc67361d-ad30-40b2-9d96-941e50fc17f5)            |
| key_name                             | mykey                                                    |
| name                                 | provider-instance                                        |
| os-extended-volumes:volumes_attached | []                                                       |
| progress                             | 0                                                        |
| project_id                           | ff5398ee1b2e4d00bafd57f82dc150e6                         |
| properties                           |                                                          |
| security_groups                      | [{u'name': u'default'}]                                  |
| status                               | BUILD                                                    |
| updated                              | 2016-11-22T03:48:02Z                                     |
| user_id                              | a78ec26501374df4a574bd3f8153d67f                         |
+--------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------+

image_1b2kqc6bf1qpjnvd137p1gr11pn3m.png-111kB

openstack server create 创建实例
--flavor  创建的类型
--image 镜像
--nic net-id= 网络ID
--security-group 设置安全组
--key-name key设置
最后一个是实例名称

检查

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server list
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name              | Status | Networks                  |
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+
| 55877c1a-7a08-4ddd-95a6-3c5376ba5c55 | provider-instance | ACTIVE | public-net=192.168.56.101 |
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+

如果无法创建虚拟机,我们需要查看所有的日志,可以直接使用

grep 'ERROR' /var/log/nova/*
grep 'ERROR' /var/log/neutron/*
grep 'ERROR' /var/log/glance/*
grep 'ERROR' /var/log/keystone/*

以及查看iptables selinux时间同步等!

提示:需要在控制节点和计算节点都进行操作,因为创建虚拟机是在计算节点。最好提前把日志清空

测试IP

[root@linux-node1 ~]# ping 192.168.56.101
PING 192.168.56.101 (192.168.56.101) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.56.101: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.784 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.56.101: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.578 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.56.101: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.426 ms

删除虚拟机

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server list
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name              | Status | Networks                  |
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+
| 55877c1a-7a08-4ddd-95a6-3c5376ba5c55 | provider-instance | ACTIVE | public-net=192.168.56.101 |
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server delete 55877c1a-7a08-4ddd-95a6-3c5376ba5c55
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server list

检查

nova service-list
neutron anget-list
nova image-list

提示:我们创建虚拟机使用的是demo,所以我们如果想查看主机也要使用demo的脚本进行查看

使用虚拟控制台访问实例

获取你实例的Virtual Network Computing (VNC)会话URL并从web浏览器访问它:

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack server list
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+
| ID                                   | Name              | Status | Networks                  |
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+
| 62d3f70e-ed8e-4840-8104-99fd2de7e689 | provider-instance | ACTIVE | public-net=192.168.56.104 |
+--------------------------------------+-------------------+--------+---------------------------+

show后面填写的是我们server的名称

[root@linux-node1 ~]# openstack console url show provider-instance
+-------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Field | Value                                                                              |
+-------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| type  | novnc                                                                              |
| url   | http://192.168.56.11:6080/vnc_auto.html?token=4b7925f4-773f-4a24-89f7-f5daea6a591c |
+-------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

我们复制这个url进行访问

image_1b2kqgdpk1mcm1s349a2k3vmmh13.png-37.4kB

账号:cirros

密码:cubswin:)

提示:要使用火狐或者谷歌访问,其他浏览器可能无法打开,因为这个页面是html5

我们在这个6080端口这个页面操作的信息会被转发到192.168.56.12:5900端口。因为12是计算节点

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